Let me preface this by saying that, in the US, packages are just left in front of your door, even when you are not at home. Yeah, this seems like it might be dangerous, but this is the environment I grew up in.
In Japan packages are delivered to you between certain time windows. If you are not ready to answer the door in this window of time, you don’t get your package, you get an annoying little slip of paper stating that the deliveryman came and you were dumb enough to not even be around. At this point you use the slip to schedule another slot for re-delivery. This continues until you actually are there at the right time.
Because I work like a normal person, the only time slot available to me on weekdays is the 7 pm to 9 pm slot. Unfortunately for me, Japanese deliverymen in my area love to come to my place right when that window of time starts. Being punctual is not always what the customer wants…
Luckily in recent years some alternatives have shown up, my favorite being package delivery to near-by 24 hour convenience stores. Unfortunately, they will not hold packages larger than a certain size for you, so it is not a solution for every situation. There are also apartment buildings with dedicated package lockers, but alas, my building is too old for that.